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How To Tame German Shepherd Prey Drive

Written By: Sharon Waddington

Last Updated:

If you own a German Shepherd, you might have to deal with the scary sight of prey birds in your dog’s mouth as it reports back from its hunting sprees. If a small animal shows up during your daily walkies, you may have to scream to call your dog back. Your German Shepherd is displaying his predatory instinct. So, how do you tame German Shepherd prey drive?

To tame German Shepherd prey drive, redirect your dog’s predatory instinct to distracting activities – keep him busy. Train the dog to reliable recall and impulse control and keep him mentally stimulated. Don’t reward your German Shepherd whenever he pursues or kills his prey.

Before I tell you more about how to tame your German Shepherd’s predatory instinct, you should know that prey drive is innate in German Shepherds and other dogs. Check out the below photo of my German Shepherd after she’d chased a squirrel up a tree. You can see how alert and excited she is.

But what exactly is the German Shepherd prey drive? Let’s tackle that first!

German Shepherd chasing a squirrel up a tree. German Shepherd Prey Drive
“Damn! The squirrel got away…….again!”

What Is Prey Drive in German Shepherds?

Prey drive in German Shepherds is the breed’s innate hunting instinct. All carnivores have this instinct, which compels them to chase and capture prey. It’s normal for a German Shepherd to pursue moving animals and objects until it catches them and, at times, even bites or kills.

Dog biologists consider the predatory instinct in dogs to be genetic and characteristic of all dogs, thanks to their ancestral roots in the wolf. 

However, the predatory urge manifests differently in every dog, and its intensity varies from breed to breed.

Among dog breeds with the strongest predatory instincts are those in the herding group, and the German Shepherd belongs to this group.

Do German Shepherds Have a Strong Prey Drive?

German Shepherds have a strong prey drive because they’re descendants of the grey wolf, hence their canine prey genes. Also, they were bred to herd, and the original breeders knew it was essential to retain a bit of the predatory gene to make German Shepherds adept at their herding task.

A study focusing on the neurological genes for dog predation, among other behaviors, confirmed that prey drive in German Shepherds and other dogs is controlled by genes related to the dogs’ nervous system. Among herding dogs like the German Shepherd, three of the neuronal genes control predation behavior.

In a natural environment, your German Shepherd’s prey drive would manifest in a series of behaviors:

  • Search for the prey
  • Stalking the prey
  • Chasing or pursuing the prey
  • Catching the prey
  • Biting or killing the prey

However, domestication and selective breeding have reduced the strong predatory behavior in German Shepherds. Despite this, the breed still stands out in predatory tendencies among its other counterparts. 

For example, a Swedish behavior test study on German Shepherds and Labrador Retrievers found that the German Shepherds’ courage was highly correlated with the breed’s prey drive. However, the two traits were poorly correlated in Labradors.

It implies that, even though the strong predatory behavior in the German Shepherd has already been reduced, GSDs still need a bit of training to keep their prey drive under control. However, that doesn’t imply curtailing your dog’s natural hunting skills. And that’s where German Shepherd prey-drive training comes in!

German Shepherd Prey Drive Training

Some dog trainers will readily tell you that the best way to manage your German Shepherd if he has a strong prey drive is to keep him safely contained at home. But such a solution trying to restrain may only cause more problems.

So, how do you convince your German Shepherd that squirrels, cats, and other small creatures aren’t necessarily meant to be its next meaty snack and that cars and bicycles aren’t its speed challenge pacers?

Here are 7 ways to train and tame German Shepherd prey drive:

  1. Assess your German Shepherd prey drive.
  2. Redirect your German Shepherd prey drive.
  3. Don’t reward your German Shepherd’s prey behavior.
  4. Train your German Shepherd to reliable recall.
  5. Teach your German Shepherd impulse control.
  6. Keep your German Shepherd mentally stimulated.
  7. Make positive prey drive management choices.

1. Assess Your German Shepherd Prey Drive

If you want to tame your German Shepherd’s predatory instinct, you must first understand it. 

Understanding your German Shepherd’s prey drive means observing the frequency and intensity of the behaviors that manifest the dog’s predatory instinct. Ask yourself these 8 questions: 

  • Does your German Shepherd give long and curious stares at potential prey, such as cats, chickens, squirrels, rabbits, and birds? Long and curious stares equate to searching for prey, which is the first stage of the prey drive. 
  • Does your dog have the habit of stalking and sniffing the path of target animals like cats and squirrels?
  • Does your German Shepherd have the habit of fetching smaller animals, like birds and rodents, and bringing their kill to you?
  • Does your doggo like running after anything that moves, including small animals, bikes, cars, skateboarders, and wildlife? 
  • Does your dog bite in a way that causes harm to you, other persons, dogs, or pets?  
  • Does your German Shepherd tend to kill its catch, even if it doesn’t eat it?
  • Does your GSD tend to ignore your commands when staring at or pursuing prey?
  • Is your best friend easily aroused by the slightest sound of a possible prey or runs when it hears such sounds?

If your answer to most of the questions was affirmative, then your German Shepherd is likely to have a strong prey drive.

German Shepherd chasing a squirrel. Best Dog GPS Tracker for German Shepherds. Best Dog Tech for German Shepherds
My German Shepherd Willow chasing a squirrel up a tree.

As you may have noticed from the photos of Willow in this article, she has a relatively strong prey drive. She loves to chase squirrels or foxes when out in the woods, and she will try to run after a passing motorbike. Thankfully she has never gone as far as fetching anything back to me – maybe she just isn’t fast enough!

Next, I’ll discuss what practical steps to take to tame your dog’s strong predatory instinct.

2. Redirect Your German Shepherd Prey Drive

When your dog spots and begins to pursue prey, desist from shouting to your dog, as this could make a counter effect and cause him to persist in the chase.

Instead, find a positive way to distract your dog’s attention from the prey. It could be engaging your German Shepherd in his favorite “catch me” game or sending him to fetch a Frisbee instead. 

Games such as tugging, chasing a ball, or ripping open stuffed toys are a good way of rechanneling prey behavior and safely releasing the predatory instinct.

2. Don’t Reward Your German Shepherd’s Prey Behavior

Dog owners sometimes strengthen their dog’s prey drive by innocently encouraging their furry friends to pursue prey. 

If your German Shepherd runs after another dog or pursues livestock or wildlife during a walk and you give it a treat or use a reward phrase like “GOOD DOG” when he returns, he’ll think that you love him pursuing prey and, thus, will keep repeating it.

Besides, allowing your dog to enjoy chasing livestock or wildlife could land you in legal trouble as there are laws regulating this behavior. For example, states like Pennsylvania, Idaho, Indiana, Maryland, and Montana have laws refraining dog owners from allowing their dogs to chase wildlife.

3. Train Your German Shepherd to Reliable Recall

A reliable recall is a term used to describe the situation where a dog promptly responds to and returns to its owner’s call 99.99% of the time.

This training is essential in taming a German Shepherd’s prey drive and is a sure way to keep the dog safe. Besides, dogs characterized by reliable recall behavior can be given greater freedom off-leash and while out in public places.

Follow these simple steps to teach your German Shepherd reliable recall:

  1. Find a moment when your German Shepherd is distracted and away from you. Invite him to come to you by saying, “COME!”
  2. Reward your dog with a cue word like “YES!” or “GOOD DOG!” if he comes to you. Each time your dog responds, you can use a clicker and immediately follow the click with a treat or reward word. Doing so will teach your GSD to associate coming to you with a good experience. 
  3. Repeat the same process at home until your dog learns to recall. Then you can proceed to use it in different situations: when playing and your dog gets distracted when walking outdoors or in a public park.

Note that the primary goal is to have your German Shepherd associate coming to you with a pleasant experience so that it can reach the point where it prefers coming to you when you call instead of running after prey.

N.B. Teaching reliable recall takes time and patience. My German Shepherd was nearly 2 years old before I had her master perfect recall. However, this varies depending on the individual dog.

Factors influencing how long it takes to train a German Shepherd’s reliable recall include the training method, distraction level, bonding, and intensity of prey drive.

4. Teach Your German Shepherd Impulse Control

Because it’s essentially an instinct, your German Shepherd’s prey drive is, to a great extent, an impulse behavior that you need to educate.

Fortunately, dogs can learn impulse control quickly, especially when taught during puppyhood and before adolescence sets in.

Teaching your German Shepherd obedience commands directed to its impulse behavior like “LEAVE IT,” and “COME” is a primary part of impulse control training.

Consider these 3 tips when teaching your German Shepherd impulse control commands:

  • Work first in a quiet and controlled environment, like inside the house or the backyard.
  • Introduce distractions like an animated toy, a Frisbee, or a ball; do this gradually. A GSD with a strong prey drive will want to chase these toys, and you can use the obedience commands to teach him to refrain from doing so.
  • Proceed to train your German Shepherd’s impulse control commands in an area with varied distractions until you’re sure he knows that he shouldn’t yield to the urge to run after moving objects.

5. Keep Your German Shepherd Mentally Stimulated

German Shepherd dogs require a lot of mental stimulation to stay happy and healthy. That means they need a job or activity to keep them engaged.

If you don’t provide enough mental stimulation for a German Shepherd with a strong prey drive, it’ll find something to keep it engaged, and that could be running after cats and vehicles.

One way to keep your doggo mentally stimulated is to engage him in games that require him to use his sniffing skills in addition to the daily outdoor exercise. 

For example, you can hide your dog’s favorite treats around the house or in the garden so that he can spend time trying to find them. Other mentally stimulating activities you can consider for your German Shepherd include:

  • Puzzle-solving: Try this highly interactive Nina Ottosson Puzzle Game from Amazon. I love this game as it engages your dog in finding his favorite treats by lifting bone shapes from several compartments.
  • Dog training: Teach your dog to pick up new tricks like shaking hands, playing dead, spinning, and rolling over.
  • Memory test: Teach your dog the names of his toys, then test him to pick the right toy when you mention the name. 

Varying your dog’s physical activities is also a good way of keeping him mentally stimulated. Why not opt for a swim or hike once in a while? These activities can become substitutes or complementary exercises to daily walks.

6. Make Positive Prey Drive Management Choices

As much as you don’t want to restrain the natural aspect of your German Shepherd’s prey drive, it’s important not to create the occasions for an extreme expression of the predatory instinct. 

As such, if your German Shepherd has a strong predatory instinct, you should consider these positive prey drive management choices to tame him:

  • Train your German Shepherd to recall and in other obedience commands like “LEAVE IT!” throughout his life. You should do this through positive reward-based training so that your dog consistently learns that there are other rewarding experiences and not just chasing prey.
  • Create a pet-friendly garden where your German Shepherd can run around and secure the garden. Especially if your GSD has not fully learned recall, your fence should be high enough to preempt him from jumping over to chase smaller animals or vehicles.
  • Keep your German Shepherd on a leash and harness during your daily walkies. Unless you’re certain that your dog will listen if you ask it not to chase moving objects or animals, always keep your dog close to you. I use the Walk Your Dog With Love No-Pull Harness as it leads from the front allowing greater control and steerability.
  • Muzzle train your German Shepherd and use the muzzle when in public. Doing this is especially important if your dog’s prey drive tends to reach the final stage of biting. Also, help your dog associate wearing a muzzle with a positive experience, like going out shopping with you instead of staying home alone.
A GSD in his yard waiting for squirrels to appear along the back fence. What is Prey Drive in German Shepherds?
Willow waiting for squirrels to appear!

FAQs About German Shepherd Prey Drive

Key Takeaways

German Shepherd prey drive is the breed’s innate instinct that makes them want to pursue and capture prey and chase moving objects. Since they inherited the instinct from their wolf ancestors and how they were bred, they have a strong prey drive.

If your German Shepherd has a strong prey drive and you want to keep it under control, you can tame it through training. You can do this by distracting your dog’s focus on the prey, teaching him reliable recall and impulse control, ensuring he’s mentally stimulated, and not rewarding his prey behavior. 

Photo of author

Sharon Waddington

Sharon Waddington is the founder of World of Dogz. With over 30 years of experience working with dogs, this former Police Officer has seen it all. But it’s her trusty German Shepherd, Willow, who steals the show as the inspiration behind this website. As Sharon’s constant companion Willow has played a pivotal role in shaping her passion for dogs.